^ EDRF endothelium derived relaxation factor Nitric Oxide. Refers to one of its many effects. This one on blood vessel and bronchial smooth muscle.
^ EGR1 or Early Growth Response 1 is a transcription factor gene which may play roles in cancer supression, apoptosis, eye growth, brain plasticity and learning.
Entrez GeneID 1958
^ EGR2 or Early Growth Response 2 is a transcription factor gene which may play roles in myelin formation and cancer supression. Mutations here cause autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1.
Entrez GeneID 1959
^ EGR3 or Early Growth Response 3 is a transcription factor gene.
From Entrez Gene: "The gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that belongs to the EGR family of C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins. It is an immediate-early growth response gene which is induced by mitogenic stimulation. The protein encoded by this gene participates in the transcriptional regulation of genes in controling biological rhythm. It may also plays a role in muscle development." It is involved in circadian rhythm cycling signaled from photoreceptors and transmitted to the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the retinohypothalamic tract.
Entrez GeneID 1960
^ Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy (EPR)A technique for studying chemicals with unpaired electrons such as free radicals. It is used to "spin-label" specific biological cell sites for study.
^ Electron Transport Chain An organized process of oxidation (stealing electrons) used to create a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane which in turn is used for phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, the energy currency of the cell. NADH, the driver of the process, is produced in the preceeding glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is oxidized and O2 is ultimately reduced to H2O. Defects in this process may lead to various diseases including optic neuropathies. See Complexes of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation.
^ Electroretinogram (ERG)Measurement of the electrical response of the retina to light stimulation.
Webvision Clinical ERG
Medline Plus patient information
^ Embryology The study of the development of organisms, organs and tissues. At its fundamental level it seeks to understand what drives cells to organize and differentiate into tissue types and organs. Insights from this discipline may unlock the keys to tissue specificity of genetic mutations and variability in penetrance of optic nerve disease.
^ Endoplasmic Reticulum [ER] A cellular organelle involved in protein synthesis and transport; lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The ER is dependent on mitochondrial ATP for energy. Derangement of mitochondrial communication with the ER via mitochondrial ER contact sites appears tightly implicated with several human disorders.
Vianello C, Cocetta V, Caicci F, Boldrin F, Montopoli M, Martinuzzi A, Carelli V, Giacomello M. Interaction Between Mitochondrial DNA Variants and Mitochondria/Endoplasmic Reticulum Contact Sites: A Perspective Review. DNA Cell Biol. 2020 Aug;39(8):1431-1443. doi: 10.1089/dna.2020.5614. Epub 2020 Jun 26. PMID: 32598172.
^ Endothelium The inner lining of blood vessels.
^ Enzyme A protein or protein complex which controls the rate of a specific chemical reaction in the cell.
^ Epigenetic(s) (Study of)Change in heritable phenotype other than by a change in genetic code sequence.
Bob Weinhold. Epigenetics: The Science Of Change. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 114, Number 3, March 2006
^ Erythropoietin A glycoprotein hormone cytokine important in blood formation. It is being trialed for neuroprotection in neural ischaemic injury and glaucoma.
L Torup. Neuroprotection with or without erythropoiesis; sometimes less is more. British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 151, 1141-1142
Zhong L, Bradley J, Schubert W, Ahmed E, Adamis AP, Shima DT, Robinson GS, Ng YS. Erythropoietin promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in DBA/2J glaucoma mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Mar;48(3):1212-8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0757. PMID: 17325165. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Mar;48(3):1212-8. PMID: 17325165
^ Ethambutol An anti tuberculosis drug known to cause toxic optic nerve disease.
^ Excitotoxicity A set of conditions damaging to the cell resulting from excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamate, the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the eye in certain conditions may begin a cascade of events leading to cell death.
^ Exon The sequences in gene DNA or RNA coding for proteins or non-coding RNA as opposed to the interspersing non expressing Introns. Compare: Codon
^ Extrastriate cortex is the part of the occipital cortex of mammals' brains adjacent to the striate cortex (or primary visual cortex).
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